Anyone who has ever taken a sick or injured pet to the vet knows how expensive veterinary care can be. It's in those situations where having a financial safety net to fall back on can be most helpful. It's also in those situations where you shouldn’t have to decide between the health of your pet and your family’s financial well-being.
As a relatively new form of insurance, the first policy issued in 1982, pet insurance is not as well understood as other types such as homeowners, renters, or life insurance. In our unbiased rating of the Best Pet Insurance Companies of 2022, we aim to help you choose the best insurance company for your pet and illuminate pet insurance by looking at what it does and doesn’t cover as well as what factors will affect the price of a policy for your pet.
* Trupanion offers a 30-day trial period if the pet owners signed up within 24 hours after their pet's vet exam. ** Nationwide's Major Medical plan has an enrollment age limit of 10 years, whereas pets older than 10 can still enroll in its Whole Pet plan.
Option for unlimited coverage
Exam fee reimbursement for covered conditions
Both accident and illness and accident-only policies available
Claims forms need to be filled out and submitted online
Only covers cats and dogs
Spot: Spot Pet Insurance offers two types of policies for cats and dogs, one only for accidents and another that provides coverage for both accidents and illnesses. These policies come with annual deductibles that must be met before you will be reimbursed for expenses. Annual coverage limits also apply, although, when building your policy, you will have the option to select unlimited annual coverage. Another plus is that exam fees for select conditions are covered by Spot’s policies. This is an additional charge with some of the providers in our ratings.
A potential downside is that when submitting claims you will need to fill out claims forms. There are other companies in our rating where you can just take a snapshot of your paid invoice and submit it through a mobile app.
Policies sold by Spot are issued by the Crum & Forster Insurance Agency and underwritten by the United States Fire Insurance Company.
Read more in our Spot review.
Cheapest pet insurance company in our rating
Three wellness plans available
Offers several types of discounts
Not available in 15 states
Only covers cats and dogs
Lemonade: Lemonade provides accident and illness pet insurance policies for cats and dogs. It also provides a number of options to add to its standard policies, including three different wellness plans and reimbursement for vet exams for covered conditions.
For our dog and cat sample policies, Lemonade is the least expensive company in our rating. Its two-day waiting period for accidents ties with Embrace as the shortest waiting period among companies in our rating.
One of the downsides for Lemonade is that it isn’t available everywhere. There are 15 states in which you cannot get its pet insurance policies.
Read more in our Lemonade review.
No coverage limits
Five-day waiting period for injuries
Covers breed-specific and congenital conditions
30-day waiting period for illnesses
Only insures cats and dogs
No coverage for exam fees
Trupanion: Trupanion provides accident and illness coverage for cats and dogs. This plan includes coverage for congenital and breed-specific conditions as long as no symptoms were present either before the coverage began or during the policy’s waiting period. Trupanion’s five-day waiting period for accidents is shorter than most of the other companies in our rating, but its 30-day waiting period for illnesses is twice as long.
One of Trupanion’s standout features is its lack of coverage limits. This means that for covered conditions you won’t have to worry about hitting any sort of limit for expensive care. A downside is that Trupanion doesn’t reimburse veterinary exam fees, even for covered conditions.
Trupanion’s policies are underwritten by the American Pet Insurance Company (APIC).
Read more in our Trupanion review.
Two-day waiting period for accidents
No claims forms when filing with its mobile app
Only covers cats and dogs
Six-month waiting period for orthopedic coverage
Embrace: Embrace’s policies provide coverage for accidents and illnesses for cats and dogs. The company also offers an extra-cost option called Wellness Rewards that provides up to $650 in reimbursements for preventive care, including dental cleaning, nail trimming, and vaccinations. The Wellness Rewards plan isn’t an insurance policy or rider. Rather, Embrace refers to it as a “budgeting tool”.
Its two-day waiting period for accidents ties with Lemonade as the shortest waiting period of all the companies in our rating. On the other hand, there is a six-month waiting period for orthopedic issues before you would receive coverage.
If you’re concerned about having to fill out paperwork when filing claims then you might be interested to learn that if you use Embrace’s mobile app to file claims you won’t have to fill out any forms. Also, the company will lower your deductible for each year you don’t submit a claim.
Policies sold by Embrace are underwritten by Cincinnati's American Modern Insurance Group.
Read more in our Embrace review.
Three-day waiting period for accident coverage
Routine care coverage available
No forms when claims filed with mobile app
Pre-existing conditions not covered
Six-month waiting period for cruciate ligament coverage
Only covers cats and dogs
Pets Best: Pets Best offers an accident-only policy as well as a policy that covers both accidents and illnesses. The accidents and illnesses policy comes in three different levels, with the most expensive adding coverage for veterinary exams, rebab, acupuncture, and chiropractic care. There is also a separate option to add coverage for routine or preventative care, including teeth cleaning and wellness exams.
The company’s three-day waiting period for accident coverage is among the shortest for companies in our review. The six-month waiting period for cruciate ligament coverage is on the longer side for companies in our rating. As with most companies in our rating, pre-existing conditions aren’t covered.
If you use the company’s mobile app to file your claims, you won’t have to fill out any forms.
Pets Best administers the policies it sells, and they are underwritten by the American Pet Insurance Company (APIC).
Read more in our Pets Best review.
No annual, per-condition, or lifetime coverage limits
No claims forms when you use the company’s website or app
No discounts for enrolling multiple pets
Only offers coverage for cats and dogs
No wellness coverage available
Healthy Paws: Healthy Paws provides pet insurance policies for cats and dogs that cover accidents and illnesses. There is no coverage available for wellness or preventative care. Like Trupanion, policies from Healthy Paws don’t come with any sort of coverage limits.
While there are many ways to file a claim with Healthy Paws, if you use its website or mobile app, there won’t be any claim forms to fill out. On the downside, if you want to enroll multiple pets with Healthy Paws, you won’t be able to take advantage of any multi-pet discounts.
Healthy Paws sells policies underwritten and issued by The Chubb Group.
Read more in our Healthy Paws review.
Offers policies for birds, reptiles, and small mammals
Has a separate policy for pet wellness coverage
Some pre-existing conditions may not be permanently excluded
One of the more expensive companies in our rating
Has a maximum enrollment age of 10 years
Nationwide: Nationwide offers accident and illness policies for cats and dogs as well as birds and other exotic pets, including reptiles, potbellied pigs, goats, and small mammals, like ferrets, rabbits, rats, and guinea pigs. Wellness policies are also available for cats and dogs.
All companies in our rating exclude pre-existing conditions, but Nationwide does offer a few exceptions. If your pet’s condition is considered cured and hasn’t shown symptoms in six months it may become eligible for coverage again.
A couple downsides to Nationwide, however, are its policy rates and maximum age cut off. Policies for cats and dogs have a maximum age limit of 10 years for enrollment in one of Nationwide’s policies, and the company’s rates are higher than many in our rating. Nationwide occasionally offers pet insurance discounts to its current home or auto policy holders.
Read more in our Nationwide review.
Policies include coverage for rehabilitation and hydrotherapy
Offers policies for horses
Optional preventative-care coverage
Claims may take up to 30 days
ASPCA Pet Health Insurance: ASPCA Pet Health Insurance provides accident and illness coverage for cats and dogs. It also offers coverage for horses, which is unique among the companies in our Best Pet Insurance Companies of 2022 ratings. Policies for cats and dogs include accident and illness coverage, as well as coverage for hereditary and congenital issues, behavioral issues, and alternative therapies, including acupuncture, physiotherapy, chiropractic care, rehabilitative therapy, hydrotherapy, and low-level laser therapy. Cat and dog insurance also covers prescription medications and microchipping, among others.
One advantage is that ASPCA allows you to add extra pets to your account for a 10% discount on each additional premium. That could be a cost-effective option if you have multiple pets. One downside to ASPCA Pet Health Insurance is that claims processing is on the longer end, taking up to 30 days to process.
ASPCA Pet Health Insurance licenses its name from the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) and is not affiliated with it. Its policies are underwritten by the United States Fire Insurance Company and administered by a Crum & Forster subsidiary.
Read more in our ASPCA Pet Health Insurance review.
Most claims settled in less than three business days
May cover pre-existing conditions deemed curable
Option of unlimited annual coverage
Only covers cats and dogs
Coverage for vet exams is optional
Figo: Figo’s policies for cats and dogs provide coverage for accidents and illnesses. You also have the option of choosing your annual coverage limits, including an unlimited coverage option. Its policies may cover pre-existing conditions that are considered curable.
Figo’s website states that most of its claims are completed in less than three business days. While coverage for vet exams isn’t part of Figo’s standard policies it is available as an option.
Figo administers its own policies, but they are underwritten by either the Independence American Insurance Company, Markel American Insurance Company, or Markel Insurance Company.
Read more in our Figo review.
Vet exam fees for covered conditions are reimbursed
Multiple discounts available
Policies include coverage for physical and behavioral therapy
No wellness coverage options
Annual wellness visit required to renew policy
Only covers cats and dogs
Fetch by The Dodo: Fetch by The Dodo provides accident and illness policies for cats and dogs. These policies include both behavioral and physical therapy and vet exams for covered conditions, but there are no options for wellness or preventative-care coverage.
There are several discounts available, including for members of AARP, active-duty and military veterans, as well as veterinarians and their employees. There are also discounts for going claims-free and for adopting a pet from either a shelter or rescue organization. You should be aware that to renew your policy your pet will be required to take an annual wellness exam.
Policies sold by Fetch by The Dodo are underwritten by XL Specialty Insurance Company and AXIS Insurance Company and administered by Fetch.
There are a lot of factors to consider as you shop for pet health insurance. The steps below can help you find the right company and policy for you and your pet.
Decide what type of policy you need. Pet owners can typically choose between three types of policies:
- Accident and illness insurance: covers treatment of broken bones, swallowed objects, cancer, urinary tract infections (UTIs), ear infections, etc.
- Wellness insurance: covers routine care, such as vaccinations, exams, spaying and neutering, and nail trims
- Exotic pet insurance: designed for pets other than cats or dogs, such as hamsters, rabbits, geckos, and snakes
Determine what is (or isn’t) covered under the policy. Closely examine which conditions, diagnostic tests, and treatments are covered for your pet and identify any limits, exclusions, or age-specific restrictions. If you own a breed of pet that is prone to hereditary or congenital conditions, such as hip dysplasia or asthma, verify that the policy will provide coverage for treatment. Keep in mind that insurers generally don’t cover pre-existing conditions.
Choose a deductible. Like human health insurance, pet insurance policies include deductibles, or the amount of money you pay before the insurance company will begin to cover expenses.
In general, the companies in our rating offer two types of deductibles:
- Annual deductibles are similar to those found in human health insurance policies. Each year, you’re responsible for paying a set amount of money (e.g., $500) for covered care, regardless of what type. After you meet your deductible, the insurer will pay any additional costs within the coverage limits.
- Per-condition deductibles refer to a set of deductibles that are specific to different conditions. For instance, a policy may include a separate deductible for arthritis, heart disease, cancer, and liver disease.
If your pet needs to visit the vet multiple times a year, and each visit is for a different injury or illness, an annual deductible may be less expensive. If your pet develops an illness or issue requiring consistent care or multiple visits but doesn't have other issues, a per-condition deductible may be more affordable. There are pros and cons to both deductibles, but neither is inherently better than the other.
Choose a reimbursement rate. Reimbursement rates refer to the percentage of costs an insurer will reimburse. Reimbursement rates vary by insurer, but common rates range from 60% to 100% of your veterinary bill.
Determine what limits are available. Limits refer to the total amount of money an insurer will pay for covered expenses (e.g., $10,000 a year). Some insurers don’t cap payments, but others have annual limits. If a policy has an annual limit, your insurer will only cover expenses up to that amount. You’ll need to cover any additional costs until the next policy year.
Find out if you can customize your premiums. Some insurers allow policyholders to customize their premiums by adjusting one or more aspects of their policy. Though each insurer is different, you may be able to adjust your deductible, reimbursement rate (percentage of costs an insurer will cover), or policy limits to build a premium that fits your budget or veterinary care needs. Decreasing your payout limits and the rate of reimbursement will typically lower your premiums. You can also lower your premiums by raising your deductible. However, keep in mind that each adjustment may result in more out-of-pocket expenses should your pet need frequent or costly care.
Check for discounts. Some insurers will offer discounts that can bring down coverage costs. Discounts vary in availability and type but may include annual pay discounts, multi-pet discounts, military discounts, and employee benefit discounts.
As you shop for a pet health insurance policy, there are a few other factors that can help you make your decision. Most companies in our rating offer several customer service options, including email, phone, and online chat support as well as mobile app access. Reviewing customer service and support options can help you find an insurer that meets your policy management and claims handling preferences.
It’s also worth considering any add-on or additional coverage you may want. Some of the companies in our rating offer wellness or alternative care plans that cover things like hydrotherapy, acupuncture, and chiropractic care. When all else is equal, reviewing customer support and supplemental coverage options can help you make your decision.
- Select a pet insurance company.
- Fill out a form for a quote.
- Schedule a visit with your vet or request they send in your pet’s medical records.
Once you’ve chosen a pet insurance company that suits your needs, you can fill out a form on the company’s website to request a quote. You will usually be asked your pet’s name, whether they’re a cat or dog, their breed, their age, where you live, and broad questions about whether they have any preexisting conditions.
After you’ve received the quote you will likely be asked more specific questions about your pet’s medical history. You will also be asked to select a plan, where applicable, and make decisions about your deductible, payout limits, and reimbursement rates.
At some point in the process, the company will likely either request you schedule an exam with your vet or that your vet submit your pet’s medical history. Some companies will wait until you file your first claim before requesting your pet’s medical records. If your pet has any pre-existing conditions, whether officially diagnosed by the vet or not, those conditions will generally be excluded from your coverage.
Pet Insurance Coverage
What pet insurance covers will all depend on your specific policy. Normally, treatments that are needed due to an injury are covered by your policy. When it comes to what is not covered, this will often include things like pre-existing conditions and dental cleanings. But, some insurers do offer wellness coverage plans that can help cover vet costs unrelated to accidents and illnesses such as vaccinations and annual wellness exams.
What does pet insurance cover?
Normally, an accident and illness policy will cover treatment that is due to an injury or illness. For example, if your pet breaks its leg, this policy might cover the cost of a cast, setting the bone, x-rays, and sometimes the exam fee.
Some policies will also cover medications, behavioral therapy, or rehab after an event that is covered.
What does pet insurance not cover?
Anything that is listed as an exclusion will not be covered by a pet insurance policy. An accident and illness policy typically won’t cover things like exam fees, vaccinations, and teeth cleanings. Pet insurance policies also typically don’t cover pre-existing conditions.
Does pet insurance only cover dogs and cats?
Most pet insurance companies only have coverage for dogs and cats, but this is not the case for all companies.
In our rating, we have two companies that offer insurance policies for other types of pets: Nationwide and ASPCA Pet Health Insurance. Nationwide has a policy for birds and other exotic pets. ASPCA Pet Health Insurance has plans for horses.
Does pet insurance cover dental?
Extractions and reconstruction due to injuries are normally covered by accident and illness pet insurance policies. But, preventative care, which would include services like teeth cleanings, is not covered.
However, some insurers, like Pets Best, will offer optional wellness coverage plans to help with the cost of routine dental services and other procedures. Other insurers, like Healthy Paws, do not offer this optional coverage.
Does pet insurance cover spaying and neutering?
Spaying and neutering are both considered preventative care, so they will generally not be covered by accident and illness policies. But there are some companies, like Pets Best, that have wellness coverage plans that can be added on. These can offset the cost of spaying and neutering.
But, always check the fine print; some wellness coverage plans, like the one offered by Nationwide, don’t include dental cleanings.
Does pet insurance cover pre-existing conditions?
Typically, pet insurance policies don’t cover any health conditions that happened prior to the time of enrollment or during the mandatory waiting period. If your pet exhibited symptoms, even if the condition wasn’t diagnosed by your vet, it will generally be considered a pre-existing condition.
Some insurers, like Healthy Paws, include a bilateral exclusion, which means if your pet has a cruciate ligament injury prior to enrollment or during the waiting period, that leg would not be covered if a similar injury happens.
Even though these pre-existing conditions aren’t covered, most insurers will provide future coverage for conditions that are considered “curable.” For example, Nationwide will cover new cruciate ligament or meniscus injuries after the first year.
Pet insurance is designed to provide coverage for your pets. It is similar to other types of insurance in that there are deductibles and exclusions that it doesn’t cover. With most pet insurance companies in our rating, you pay your vet for their services and then submit a claim to your insurance provider which will then evaluate the claim to see if it meets the requirements of your policy. Once your claim has been approved, the insurer will then reimburse you according to the specifications of your policy.
For example, if your policy has a 90% reimbursement rate and you’ve already met your deductible, your insurer would pay you 90% of the amount you paid the vet, as long as you’re still below the coverage limits of your policy.
Types of Pet Insurance
- Accident and Illness Insurance: These policies cover your pet in the case that they are injured or fall ill.
- Wellness Insurance: Wellness policies generally cover more routine issues like exams, vaccinations, spaying and neutering, and nail trims.
- Exotic Pet Insurance: This type of insurance covers pets that aren’t cats or dogs. Very few companies offer this type of insurance.
Most pet insurance policies are for when your pet is injured or becomes ill. Sometimes this will be split into separate accident or illness plans.
Wellness policies, plans, and riders are rare. Some companies, like ASPCA and Pets Best, offer routine care or preventative care riders, while companies like Nationwide offer separate wellness insurance policies. One thing to look out for is that some companies, like Embrace, offer a wellness rewards plan. These are not necessarily insurance policies or riders but are designed to cover things like check-ups and other preventative care up to a certain amount each year.
When researching different companies with wellness add-ons, look to see whether the wellness plans are a type of insurance policy or not.
The third type of insurance is designed to cover pets that aren’t cats and dogs, such as birds, reptiles, and small animals. Only one company in our rating, Nationwide, offers such a policy. Its Avian & Exotic Pet policy covers accidents, illnesses, and some preventative care such as exams. While it doesn’t offer an exotic pet plan per se, ASPCA Pet Health Insurance does offer plans that cover horses.
Pet Insurance Plan Availability
The pets of U.S. News employees
How much does pet insurance cost?
Based on our sample policies, pet insurance for dogs costs between $20 and $70 per month. For cats, the cost is between $11 and $30 per month.
Our sample policies were based on a 1-year-old female mixed-breed dog and an under one-year-old male domestic shorthair cat, respectively, in excellent health residing in Texas, with a $500 annual deductible, $5,000 annual benefit limit, and 90% reimbursement rate.
Premiums will vary based on if you have a cat or dog, your pet’s age, health, and location.
Factors specific to your policy will also affect the cost. Some examples include the following:
- Coverage limits
- Reimbursement rate
- Any options you may have added
- Type of policy
Pet Insurance Cost Comparison
* Any rates listed are for illustrative purposes only. You should contact the insurance company or insurance agent directly for applicable quotes. * Monthly costs are for a 1-year-old female mixed-breed dog and a male domestic shorthair cat less than a year old, respectively, in excellent health residing in Texas, with a $500 annual deductible, $5,000 annual benefit limit, and 90% reimbursement rate. * Trupanion's deductible is per incident throughout lifetime, whereas other companies use an annual deductible. Trupanion also has no benefit limit. ** Healthy Paws has no benefit limit. *** Nationwide differs from our standard archetype by having a $250 deductible and $10,000 annual benefit limit.
Read our guide to How Much Does Pet Insurance Cost? for more information.
Is pet insurance worth it?
The value of pet insurance is largely based on your expectations. If your pet is currently undergoing treatment for a chronic condition and you would like help with the cost of the treatment, you will likely be disappointed as no company or agency in our rating covers pre-existing conditions.
But, if you understand your policy and what it does and doesn’t cover and have a policy that fits your budget and needs, you are far more likely to consider the policy worth it.
You may also have years where you don’t have to take your pet to the vet for anything other than an annual check-up and vaccinations, but if your pet suffers an accident or becomes seriously ill, that is when you may consider pet insurance worth the expense.
Read our guide to whether pet insurance is worth it for more information.
Do pet insurance plans offer discounts?
Yes, many pet insurance companies offer discounts. To help make policies more budget-friendly, many companies offer discounts when you insure multiple pets. There are also some discounts for veterans, active members of the military, and people who work in jobs related to animal care.
Pet Insurance Discount Comparison
* A 5% affiliation discount may apply to individuals who belong to select military, law enforcement, and service animal training organizations that have a relationship with Nationwide. ** A discount is offered to pet owners who work at animal-care facilities such as shelters.
Do pet insurance companies have networks?
Pet insurance companies generally don’t have networks. While Trupanion does partner with some vets to provide instant reimbursement on its policies, you can still use this insurance with other vets.
How do you file a pet insurance claim?
With most pet insurance providers, to file a claim you will fill out a claim form on the company’s website, in its app, or by printing it out and mailing it. You typically submit an invoice from your vet with your claim.
What is a pet savings account?
A pet savings account is a type of supplemental savings account dedicated to saving up money for expenses related to your pet.
For more information about pet insurance visit our guides:
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Why You Can Trust Us: 24 Pet Insurance Companies Researched
At U.S. News & World Report, we rank the Best Hospitals, Best Colleges, and Best Cars to guide readers through some of life’s most complicated decisions. Our 360 Reviews team draws on this same unbiased approach to rate the products that you use every day. To build our ratings, we researched more than 24 pet insurance companies and agencies and analyzed 12 third-party review sources. Our 360 Reviews team does not take samples, gifts, or loans of products or services we review. All sample products provided for review are donated after review. In addition, we maintain a separate business team that has no influence over our methodology or recommendations.
The following describes our 360 approach to researching and analyzing pet insurance to guide prospective consumers.
1. We researched the companies and products people care most about.
U.S. News analyzed and compared a variety of publicly available data, including internet search data, to determine which pet insurance companies and agencies Americans are most interested in. We found 24 companies and agencies that stand out in terms of volume of searches and research among consumers, as well as across the different rating sources. After conducting a thorough analysis, we were able to condense the initial list to the 10 overall Best Pet Insurance Companies. With the companies and agencies determined, we conducted a comprehensive research on their features to create a general layout of what consumers should know to assist with their purchasing decisions.
We then compared the available plans provided by our top pet insurance companies and agencies across several criteria, including but not limited to cost, wellness riders, waiting periods, plan coverage, claim processing time, unique features, and customer satisfaction. Research shows that these are the most important criteria for people shopping for pet insurance. Monthly costs are for a one-year-old female mixed-breed dog and an under one-year-old male domestic shorthair cat, respectively, in excellent health residing in Texas, with a $500 annual deductible, $5,000 annual benefit limit, and 90% reimbursement rate.
2. We created objective 360 Overall Ratings based on an analysis of third-party reviews.
U.S. News’ 360 Reviews team applied an unbiased methodology that includes opinions from professional reviews as well as consumer reviews.
Our scoring methodology is based on a composite analysis of the ratings and reviews published by credible third-party professional and consumer review sources. The ratings are not based on personal opinions or experiences of U.S. News. To calculate the ratings:
(a) We compiled two types of third-party ratings and reviews:
Professional Ratings and Reviews. Many independent pet insurance evaluating sources have published their assessments of pet insurance companies and agencies and their plans. We consider several of these third-party reviews to be reputable and well-researched. However, professional reviewers often make recommendations that contradict one another. Rather than relying on a single source, U.S. News believes consumers benefit most when these opinions and recommendations are considered and analyzed collectively with an objective, consensus-based methodology.
Consumer Ratings and Reviews. U.S. News also reviewed published consumer ratings and reviews of pet insurance companies and agencies. Sources with a sufficient number of quality consumer ratings and reviews were included in our scoring model.
Please note that not all professional and consumer rating sources met our criteria for objectivity. Therefore, some sources were excluded from our model.
(b) We standardized the inputs to create a common scale.
The third-party review source data were collected in a variety of forms, including ratings, recommendations, and accolades. Before including each third-party data point into our scoring equation, we had to standardize it so that it could be compared accurately with data points from other review sources. We used the scoring methodology described below to convert these systems to a comparable scale.
The 360 scoring process first converted each third-party rating into a common 0 to 5 scale. To balance the distribution of scores within each source’s scale, we used a standard deviation (or Z-Score) calculation to determine how each company and agency’s score compared to the source’s mean score. We then used the Z-Score to create a standardized U.S. News score using the method outlined below:
Calculating the Z-Score: The Z-Score represents a data point's relation to the mean measurement of the data set. The Z-Score is negative when the data point is below the mean and positive when it's above the mean; a Z-Score of 0 means it's equal to the mean. To determine the Z-Score for each third-party rating of a company or agency, we calculated the mean of the ratings across all companies and agencies evaluated by that third-party source. We then subtracted the mean from the company’s rating and divided it by the standard deviation to produce the Z-Score.
Calculating the T-Score: We used a T-Score calculation to convert the Z-Score to a 0-100 scale by multiplying the Z-Score by 10. To ensure that the mean was equal across all data points, we added our desired scoring mean (between 0 and 10) to the T-Score to create an adjusted T-Score.
Calculating the common-scale rating: We divided the adjusted T-Score, which is on a 100-point scale, by 20 to convert the third-party rating to a common 0-5 point system.
(c) We calculated the 360 Overall Score based on a weighted-average model.
We assigned “source weights” to each source used in the consensus scoring model based on our assessment of how much the source is trusted and recognized by consumers and how much its published review process indicates that it is both comprehensive and editorially independent. The source weights are assigned on a 1-5 scale. Any source with an assigned weight less than one was excluded from the consensus scoring model.
Finally, we combined the converted third-party data points using a weighted average formula based on source weight. This formula calculated the consensus score for each product, which we call the 360 Overall Rating.